Impact of Health Education and Treatment Interventions on Urinary Schistosomiasis in School Children

Schistosomiasis is a chronic infection caused by flukes belonging to the genus Schistosoma. At least 200 million people, in 74 countries, are infected with the disease and at least 600 million are at risk of infection [1]. Like the majority of the parasitic diseases, schistosomiasis is influenced by human behavior, mainly water use practices and indiscriminate urination and defecation, but also, failure to take advantage of available screening services.

Objective

July 30, 2018

In Search of a Controlled Vocabulary for Emergency Department Chief Complaint: A Comparison of Four Published Chief Complaint Lists

The lack of a standardized vocabulary for recording CC complicates the collection, aggregation, and analysis of CC for any purpose, but especially for real-time surveillance of patterns of illness and injury. The need for a controlled CC vocabulary has been articulated by national groups and a plan proposed for developing such a vocabulary. To date there has been no comparison of published CC lists.  This study lays the groundwork for a controlled ED CC vocabulary by comparing selected terms from several published ED CC lists.

Objective

July 30, 2018

Biosurveillance: A Definition, Scope and Description of Current Capability for a National Strategy

Homeland Security Presidential Directive – 21 (HSPD-21) requires the Department of Health and Human Services to establish a national biosurveillance capability that provides early warning and situation awareness for urgent public health events.  Early concepts of biosurveillance focused primarily on syndromic surveillance methodologies; while recent descriptions call for a more comprehensive and integrated approach to determine a nationwide biosurveillance capability (1, 2).

Objective:

July 30, 2018

Fast and Flexible Outbreak Detection by Linear-Time Subset Scanning

The spatial scan statistic [1] detects significant spatial clusters of disease by maximizing a likelihood ratio statistic over a large set of spatial regions. Typical spatial scan approaches either constrain the search regions to a given shape, reducing power to detect patterns that do not correspond to this shape, or perform a heuristic search over a larger set of irregular regions, in which case they may not find the most relevant clusters. In either case, computation time is a serious issue when searching over complex region shapeso r when analyzing a large amount of data.

July 30, 2018

Increasing Local Access to Syndromic Surveillance Data

In the spring of 2005, the ISDH began using Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics  (ESSENCE) application to analyze emergency department (ED) chief complaint data for syndromic surveillance purposes.  While granting hospitals and local health departments access to their data through ESSENCE has been desirable since the start of the PHESS project, an aggressive timeline made it necessary to direct all resource capacity toward first establishing hospital ED data connections.  The Marion County Health Department (Indianapolis) was the only LHD i

July 30, 2018

Multivariate Time Series Analyses Using Primitive Univariate Algorithms

Time series analysis is very popular in syndromic surveillance. Mostly, public health officials track in the order of hundreds of disease models or univariate time series daily looking for signals of disease outbreaks. These time series can be aggregated counts of various syndromes, possibly different genders and age-groups. Recently, spatial scan algorithms find anomalous regions by aggregating zipcode level counts [1]. Usually, public health officials have a set of disease models (for e.g. fever or headache symptom in male adults is indicative of a particular disease).

July 30, 2018

Navy Disease Reporting System Case Validation through Use of HL7 and SADR/SIDR Databases: Chlamydia Trachomatis

Reporting allows for the collection of statistics that show how often disease occurs, which helps researchers identify disease trends and track disease outbreaks. U.S. Navy has a modified list of reportable medical events to accommodate for deployment limiting functions. Reports on all reportable events are submitted to the Naval Disease Reporting System (NDRS). Medical event surveillance is particularly important in the military populations where medical events can have mission-degrading implications and affect troop strength.

Objective

July 30, 2018

Exploring the Role of Quest Diagnostics Corporate Data Warehouse for Timely Influenza Surveillance

A Quest Diagnostics Incorporated – CDC collaboration in 2000  pioneered  exploration  of  test  ordering data to enhance infectious diseasessurveillance1. This  year’s  unexpected shortage of vaccine and reports of human illness caused by avian influenza  A  (H5N1)  in  Asia2  heightened concern about  influenza and focused attention on moving toward more complete, real time surveillance. We extended our previous collaboration to explore the use of  the Quest Diagnostics Corporate Informatics Data Warehouse (QIDW) as a tool for surveillance of influenza.

July 30, 2018

ICD9 as a Surrogate for Chart Review in the Validation of a Chief Complaint Syndromic Surveillance System

The existing New York State Department of Health emergency department syndromic surveillance system has used patient’s chief complaint (CC) for assigning to six syndrome categories (Respiratory, Fever, Gastrointestinal, Neurological, Rash, Asthma). The sensitivity and specificity of the CC computer algorithms that assign CC to syndrome categories are determined by using chart review as the criterion standard. These analyses are used to refine the algorithm and to evaluate the effect of changes in the syndrome definitions.

July 30, 2018

West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources Syndromic Surveillance for Mass Gatherings

Mass gatherings—defined as events attended by a sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of the host state—pose unique surveillance challenges. Attendees can be at greater (or high) risk for injuries due to event activities or volume of people in an unstructured setting. Surveillance can help detect early signs of outbreaks associated with crowding and compromised sanitation.

March 08, 2019

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This Knowledge Repository is made possible through the activities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cooperative Agreement/Grant #1 NU500E000098-01, National Surveillance Program Community of Practice (NSSP-CoP): Strengthening Health Surveillance Capabilities Nationwide, which is in the interest of public health.

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